Therapeutic Areas
: Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease

Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease

What is agitation in Alzheimer's Disease (AAD)?

Agitation is a common behavioral symptom experienced by a majority of patients with Alzheimer's Disease,

Agitation in Alzheimer's Disease (AAD) which includes emotional lability, restlessness, irritability, and aggression,1 is one of the most distressing and debilitating of the behavioral complications of Alzheimer's disease. Both sleep disturbances and agitation are common and co-morbid features of Alzheimer's disease.1,2,3

AAD has significant negative consequences for patients as well as their caregivers. Agitation is one of the most common reasons for Alzheimer's disease patients having to transition to nursing homes and other long-term care settings.

How prevalent is AAD?

Agitation is likely to affect more than half of the 5.3 million Americans who currently suffer from Alzheimer's disease, and this number is expected to nearly triple by 2050.4 The presence of agitation nearly doubles the cost of caring for patients with Alzheimer's disease, and agitation is estimated to account for more than 12 percent of the $256 billion in healthcare and societal cost of associated with Alzheimer's disease for the year 2017 in the United States.4

What are the current treatments for AAD and what are their limitations?

Currently, there is no FDA approved treatment for behavioral symptoms such as agitation and aggression. However, there is widespread off-label use of atypical anti-psychotic medications for behavioral symptoms in Alzheimer's disease, despite the lack of evidence for their effectiveness and significant risks associated with their use in this population.1 AAD is recognized by the FDA as a serious condition with an unmet medical need.

To learn about TNX-102 SL for AAD

  1. Canevelli M, Valletta M, Trebbastoni A, Sarli G, D'Antonio F, Tariciotti L, de Lena C, Bruno G. Sundowning in Dementia: Clinical Relevance, Pathophysiological Determinants, and Therapeutic Approaches. Front Med (Lausanne). 2016;3:73.
  2. Rose K, Specht J, Forch W. Correlates among nocturnal agitation, sleep, and urinary incontinence in dementia. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen. 2015;30(1):78-84.
  3. Shih YH, Pai MC, Huang YC, Wang JJ. Sundown Syndrome, Sleep Quality, and Walking Among Community-Dwelling People With Alzheimer Disease. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2017;18(5):396-401.
  4. The Alzheimer's Association. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures.